Your browser does not support JavaScript!
Animal Health | Esco VacciXcell

Vaccination Programs

Vaccination program should be tailored based on the type of operation, geographic area, and species. Although beneficial, it is not cost-effective to vaccinate against diseases that do not occur in the area. A veterinarian should be consulted to determine appropriate vaccines for the animals.

Vaccination Schedule for Livestock and Poultry

CATTLES AND BUFFALOES
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Rift Valley Fever 6-8 weeks before breeding season
Paratyphoid 7-14 days
Heartwater blood 0-21 days
Paratyphoid (2nd injection) 3-8 weeks
Contagious abortion S19 (for heifers) 4 months
Gall sickness 4 months
Botulism/Blackquarter 5-6 months
Anthrax 5-6 months
Rift Valley Fever (2nd injection) 5-6 months or at weaning
Botulism/Blackquarter (2nd injection) 5-6 months or at weaning
Lumpy-skin disease 5-6 months or at weaning
B. Phemeral 5-6 months or at weaning
Continued immunization for adult cattles
Three-day stiff sickness Annual (Aug-Sept)
Lumpy-skin disease Annual (Aug-Sept)
Rift Valley Fever Annual (Aug-Sept)
Botulism/Blackquarter Annual (April-June)
Anthrax Annual (April-June)
CHICKENS
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Marek's Disease Day 1
Infectious Bronchitis, Hitchner B1 Day 1
Mycoplasma 7 days
Gumboro Disease 3 weeks
Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) 4 weeks
Gumboro Disease (2nd injection) 4 weeks
Newcastle Disease la Sota 6 weeks
Mycoplasma (2nd injection) 7 weeks
Pox 8 weeks
Infectious Laryngotracheitis 12 weeks
Infectious Bronchitis, Hitchner B1 (2nd injection) 14 weeks
Continued immunization for adult chickens
Newcastle Disease la Sota Monthly
Mycoplasma Annual (Jan)
Combination: Bursal Disease,
Newcastle Disease,
Brochitis,
Reovirus
Annual (June)
Mycoplasma Annual (Aug)
Pox Annual (September and December)
HORSES
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Equine Influenza 2 weeks
African horse sickness 1 month
Equine Influenza (2nd injection) 3 months
Tetanus 3 months
Equine Influenza (3rd injection) 5 months
Tetanus (2nd injection) 5 months
African horse sickness (2nd injection) 5-6 months
Equine Influenza (4th injection) 6 months
Tetanus (3rd injection) 12 months
Continued immunization for adult horses
Equine Influenza Annual
African horse sickness Annual (Aug-Sept)
Anthrax Annual (April-May)
Tetanus Annual
PIGS
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Bordetella 1 week
Erysipelas 1 week
Mycoplasma 1 week
Porcine Circovirus 2 3 weeks
Bordetella (2nd injection) 4 weeks
Erysipelas (2nd injection) 4 weeks
Mycoplasma (2nd injection) 4 weeks
Leptospirosis 6 months
Parvovirus 6 month
Diamond skin disease 6 month
Continued immunization for adult pigs
Escherichia coli Annual
Leptospirosis Annual
Diamond skin disease Semi-Annual
Parvovirus Semi-Annual
SHEEP AND GOATS
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Bluetongue virus 9 weeks before breeding season (ewes) or just after breeding season (rams). and at 6 months
Rift Valley Fever 4-6 weeks before breeding season
Chlamydia 4-6 weeks before breeding season
Heartwater blood 2 weeks
Brucella 4-5 months
Enterotoxaemia 4-5 months
Enterotoxaemia (2nd injection) 6 months
Rift Valley Fever (2nd injection) 6 months
Continued immunization for adult sheep
Bluetongue virus Annual (Aug-Sept)
Enterotoxaemia Annual (Aug-Sept)
Anthrax Annual (April-May)
CAMELIDS (CAMELS AND LLAMAS)
Naive / Animals that have never been vaccinated
Clostridium perfringens and C. tetani (CD/T) 3-4 months
Rabies 3-6 months
Equine herpesvirus-1 3-6 months
Clostridium perfringens and (CD/T) - (2nd injection) 4-5 months
Rabies (2nd injection) 4-7 months
Equine herpesvirus-1 (2nd injection) 4-7 months
Continued immunization for adult llama
Clostridium perfringens and
C. tetani
(CD/T)
Annual
Rabies Annual
Equine herpesvirus-1 Annual

Aquaculture vaccines

Similar to terrestrial animals, misuse of antibiotics to control these infectious diseases could lead to the generation of AMR. Fishes may ingest different doses of the antibiotic, which in excess, accumulate in the fish tissue. Organisms in fish tissues under antibiotic stress would be promoted to produce ARGs. These would eventually be released to the local aquatic system and facilitated to contaminate nearby farms. Combined with proper farm management through good hygiene and limited stress, vaccination is an important key to combat infectious diseases and reducing AMR generation.

Common disease/pathogens affecting aquaculture industry

Bacterial Viral

Fishes

Aeromonas hydrophila
Aeromonas salmonicida
Flavobacterium
pyschrophilum
Lactococciosis
Moritella viscosa
Pseudomonas fluorescnes
Photobacterium
Renibacterium
salmoninarum
Streptococciosis
Tenacibacullum maritimum
Vibrio anguillarum
Vibrio salmonicida
Yersinia ruckeri
Infectios haemopoietic necrosis virus (IHN)
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPN)
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV)
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV)
Nodavirus infection (VER)
Red Seabream Iridovirus (RSIV)
Channel catfish virus disease (CCV)
Spring viermia of carp (SVCV)
Grass carp hemorrhage disease (GCHDV)
Pancreas disease virus (PDV)
Salmon pox
Viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)
Viral nervous necrosis/SJNNV

Shrimps/Prawns

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP)
Vibrio (V. alginolyticus, V. costicola, V. harveyi, V. splendidus, and V. parahaemolyticus) Photobacterium
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)
White spot baculovirus (WSBV)
Taura syndrome virus (TSV)
Yellowhead virus (YHV)
Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)

Development of oral fish vaccines

Most of the vaccines for aquaculture to date are protective against bacterial pathogens. These can be administered either orally or by injection (intraperitoneal or intramuscular route). Injection route proves to be the most protective, but also labor-intensive, stressful to the fish, and reported for side effects. The main issue with oral vaccines, however, is due to low efficacy owing to harshness and tolerability of the fish gut environment.

Despite this issue, it is still ideal to develop oral vaccines that have the balance of protection from antigen breakdown and also immunological induction. Fish pathogen antigens for viral vaccines are propagated in cell lines but only limited yields are obtained. Esco VacciXcell bioreactors, CelCradle™ and TideXcell™, allow maximum cell growth and increased cell population for adherent cell lines such as RTG-2 and CHSE-214 in fish vaccine manufacturing. This is achieved through our macrocarriers that can house higher cell number per unit volume.

To circumvent antigen degradation in the gut, microencapsulation techniques have been developed including nanoparticles (using chitosan nanoparticles), alginate particles (works well with DNA plasmids), biofilms (used against Aeromonas), and microalgae. Microalgae can function as a natural bio-encapsulation device that protects the expressed transgenes. It also allow scale-up production and consistent expression 

References:
  1. Charoonnart, P., Purton, S., & Saksmerprome, V. (2018). Applications of Microalgal Biotechnology for Disease Control in Aquaculture. Biology, 7(2), 24. doi:10.3390/biology7020024
  2. Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries – Republic of South Africa (n.d.). Swine Biosecurity Measures. Last accessed 31 July 2019 from https://www.nda.agric.za/doaDev/sideMenu/Food%20Import%20&%20Export%20Standard/docs/Swine%20Biosecurity%20mearsures.pdf
  3. European Food Information Council (2013). Ensuring the safety of meat from vaccinated animals in Europe. Last accessed 21 June 2019 from https://healthforanimals.org/resources-and-events/antibiotics-faq.html
  4. Mutoloki, S., Munang'andu, H. M., & Evensen, Ø. (2015). Oral Vaccination of Fish - Antigen Preparations, Uptake, and Immune Induction. Frontiers in immunology, 6, 519. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00519
  5. National Office of Animal Health Ltd (2017). Vaccination for animal health: an overview. Last accessed 05 December 2019 https://www.noah.co.uk/briefingdocument/vaccination-animal-health-overview/
  6. Onderstepoort Biological Products (n.d.). Immune program. Last accessed 31 July 2019 https://www.obpvaccines.co.za/resources/documents/Immune-Program.pdf
  7. Roth F, Zinsstag J, Orkhon D, Chimed-Ochir G, Hutton G, Cosivi O, Carrin G, Otte J. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(12):867–76.
  8. Salama, N.K., & Murray, A.G. (2011). Farm size as a factor in hydrodynamic transmission of pathogens in aquaculture fish production.
  9. Siripornadulsil S., Dabrowski K., Sayre R. Microalgal vaccines. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2007;616:122–128
  10. Sommerset I., Krossøy B., Biering E., Frost P. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2005;4(1):89-101.
  11. Vujanic, A., Sutton, P., Snibson, K. J., Yen, H.-H., & Scheerlinck, J.-P. Y. (2012). Mucosal vaccination: Lung versus nose. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 148(1-2), 172–177. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.03.004