Allergy Vaccine | Esco VacciXcell

Everything You Need to Know About Allergy Vaccines

Allergy is the body's immune system's extreme reaction to external stimuli, known as allergens. Allergens can range from something as tiny and minuscule as a plant pollen to something as trivial as food. With millions of people around the world suffering from allergies, a way to cure it or at least suppress it became widely sought after. This is the reason why allergy vaccines were created.

Allergy shots or allergy vaccines are a form of treatment called immunotherapy. Each shot contains a small amount of allergens that triggers the allergy which stimulates the immune system to respond. 

How Do Allergy Vaccines Work?

  1. By routinely scheduled vaccination doses, allergens are gradually introduced into a person's body. The allergen of concern is present in these vaccine shots in a regulated and escalating dosage. Immunotherapy for allergies is not intended to "treat" allergies, but rather to help the body become accustomed to the allergen that is causing the reaction. When the body's immune system gradually becomes accustomed to the allergen through continuous incremental dosages, the symptoms will eventually lessen or disappear entirely.
  2. Allergen immunotherapy is a form of long-term treatment that reduces the symptoms of many people that have allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, insect allergy, pollen allergy or allergic asthma. 
  3. Allergy vaccines are generally safe for both children and adults, but it should be administered by a trained physician inside a well-equipped facility. Extreme allergic reactions can cause asphyxiation and subsequently death if not handled properly.
  4. Allergy vaccines usually consist of around 20 shots spread over a fairly long period of time with month/s in between doses. This is first to build up the desensitization factor within the body and then followed by a maintenance phase. The sheer number of shots however is bothersome to most people and a call for less dosage gave birth to innovations within allergy immunotherapy.
  5. In order to increase the allergen exposure without increasing the risk for the patient, allergens may be treated chemically to reduce their allergy-related characteristics by increasing the exposure rate on day one. Using a gradual release vehicle for the allergens is another technique that can be used. The gradual release of the allergens will begin after being injected into the patient.

Mechanism of Allergy vaccines

The human body responds to injected amounts of a particular allergen given in gradually increasing doses which develops tolerance to the allergen.

There are two phases:

  1. Building up phase - this phase involves starting with low doses of the allergens and increasing them every two weeks. The frequency of the injections will often determine how long the phase lasts. It often lasts between three and six months.
  2. Maintenance phase - When the body achieves the effective dose, this phase starts. Longer intervals between shots are anticipated during this phase, with estimates ranging from two to four weeks. The level of allergen sensitivity and the patient's reaction to the building up phase determine the effectiveness of the maintenance dose.

Dust Mite Desensitization

Dust mites are a very common entity in a household. In fact, more than 80% of all houses have dust mites. Dust mites like to stay in cozy areas where they can easily feed off dead skin that falls off such as your bed. To make things worse, more than 40% of people who have allergies are also allergic to dust mites. Symptoms from dust mite allergy includes runny nose, sneezing, itchy eyes, among others.

Fortunately, a recent breakthrough has been achieved by using bacterial DNA-based vaccines to program the immune response to dust mites thus lessening its allergic reaction. With this new breakthrough, desensitization to dust mites is now possible.

These bacterial DNA-based vaccines would require bacterial microorganisms to be cultured in an environment that would allow them to proliferate efficiently without risk of contamination or risk of contaminating the environment. 

Hay Fever Pollen Desensitization

Pollen are tiny particles from plants which are easily airborne and get carried to great distances from where they originate, making those allergic to it to get irritating pulmonary symptoms.

The danger with pollen vaccines is that pollen tends to provoke one of the more hazardous responses in the world of allergens.

Fortunately, technology has advanced and scientists have found a way to chemically alter pollen such that they will not be so reactive in the body, allowing for shorter and more efficient therapy sessions.

Hay fever vaccines should be prepared in a sterile way to avoid other substances and foreign objects to enter the patient's body along with the vaccine. VacciXcell provides a wide range of Biosafety Cabinets or you may visit (Link: Tapestle RX website and Esco Pharma website) for more information on isolators and cleanrooms.

Allergy Vaccine is Considered an Effective Treatment for Allergies

It has shown that allergy shots decrease the symptoms of many allergies. It also prevents the development of new allergies in children. Because of this, allergy vaccines are considered to be an effective treatment for some allergies for both children and adults. However, some people may experience the worst effect after discontinuing the shot. 

Advantages of Allergy Vaccines

  1. Allergy shots decrease sensitivity to allergens and often leads to lasting relief of allergy symptoms even after treatment is stopped. This makes it a cost-effective, beneficial treatment approach for many people.
  2. Allergy shots work for various types of allergies. It is safe for children five years and older. This also includes the people who experienced severe allergy reactions all throughout the year. Doctors recommend allergy shots to numerous allergic conditions such as insect stings, seasonal allergies and indoor allergies.
  3. Once allergy shots are administered, the allergies are already under control. Exposing to increasing levels of allergen, immune system functions are continuously expressing antibodies to fight the foreign entities. With this kind of approach, it makes the allergy vaccine more effective compared to the traditional medications.
  4. Allergy shots reduce the need for long-term medication. Unlike medication or treatment of these allergies, allergy shots reduce the body’s sensitivity to the different allergens that trigger the reaction. 
  5. Having allergy shots makes the immune system enhance its capability to fight these allergens.

Vaccine Production Timeline

Esco VacciXcell's Production Timeline.

The production timeline for a vaccine using Tide Motion Bioreactors can vary depending on a number of factors such as the specific vaccine being produced, the size of the batch, and the production process used. However, the following is a general timeline that can be expected when using Tide Motion Bioreactors for vaccine production:

  1. Seed Train Development: The first step in vaccine production is the development of a seed train, which involves growing a small quantity of the virus or bacteria used in the vaccine. This process typically takes around 7-14 days and can be done using conventional culture techniques.
  2. Inoculum Preparation: Once the seed train is developed, the next step is to scale up the production by growing larger volumes of the virus or bacteria. Tide Motion Bioreactors can be used for inoculum preparation and this typically takes around 10-14 days.
  3. Bioreactor Production: After the inoculum is prepared, it is transferred to the Tide Motion Bioreactor for the actual vaccine production. The length of this process can vary depending on the vaccine being produced and the specific process used. However, using Tide Motion Bioreactors can reduce the time required for vaccine production by up to 50% compared to conventional production methods.
  4. Harvesting and Purification: Once the vaccine is produced, it needs to be harvested and purified to remove impurities and ensure it is safe for use. This process can take around 2-4 weeks and typically involves a series of filtration and purification steps.
  5. Quality Control and Release: The final step in vaccine production is quality control testing to ensure the vaccine is safe and effective. This process typically takes a few weeks and involves a range of tests, including potency testing, sterility testing, and safety testing. Once the vaccine passes all tests, it is released for distribution.

Therefore, the production timeline for a vaccine using Tide Motion Bioreactors can take anywhere from 6-12 weeks, depending on the specific vaccine being produced and the size of the batch.

  1. Birgit Linhart. 2012. Vaccines for Allergy. National Center for Biotechnology information. Pages 354-360. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2012.03.006
  2. Flöistrup Swartz J. Allergic disease and sensitization in Steiner school children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:59–66.
  3. National Library of Medicine. 2022. Dust mite allergies: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (desensitization) in the treatment of allergies.
  4. Florida Medical Clinic. 2020. Allergy Shots: Are They Worth It?.