Molecular bioassays are used for disease diagnostics. Some of the widely known and proven techniques to diagnose diseases are western blotting, immunofluorescence, and ELISA.
Western blot is an assay used to detect specific proteins from a sample. Target specific monoclonal antibodies are utilized to complex with an enzyme which attaches to the transferred protein. This technique is used in a wide range of medical diagnosis applications such as for HIV infection, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), Hepatitis B and so on.
Immunofluorescence is a technique which determines the location of an antibody or an antigen from a sample by reacting it with another antigen or antibody, respectively, which is labeled with a fluorescent dye. This technique can be used in the diagnosis of different diseases like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Also, it can be used to measure the body’s quantity of antibody against different kinds of microorganisms like Coxiella burnetti, which causes Q fever to both humans and animals, and Rickettsia which causes the Colorado tick fever.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an immunological technique which detects and quantitates the amount of antibodies, antigens, or proteins in a given sample. The applications of ELISA in medical diagnostics is vast because of its proven effectivity. ELISA are used in various veterinary diagnostics tests as well as in human diagnostics for the diagnosis of allergies, infectious diseases, and even cancer.