Esco VacciXcell News

Caring for Livestock

By Esco Healthcare 27 August, 2018


Agricultural animals play an important role in economic and socio-cultural aspects in terms of food supply, source of income, transport and so much more. These animals are taken care of to reproduce and to provide good quality products.

However, even with workers tending to these animals, their greatest foe can still reach them any time, this is known as Foot and mouth disease (FMD).

Foot and mouth disease is a contagious viral disease caused by Apthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. This common disease is found in agricultural animals — cloven–hoofed animals (e.g., cattle, goat, pigs, and sheep). The affected animals suffer from fever, painful sores, and blisters on the feet and mouth, thus, causing high mortality in young animals.

Moreover, this disease is endemic in several parts of Asia, Africa, and South America; but this can still occurs in other places. The FMD virus can be found in milk and semen of the infected animal, which can infect others via respiratory or oral routes.

According to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), FMD is the first disease to have an official list of FMD free countries and zones without vaccination. They also declared that there are seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3 and Asia1) that need a specific vaccine strain.

In combating FMD, millions of vaccines are produced worldwide. Suspension culture of BHK-21 c13 cells are commonly used in FMD vaccine production.

The foot and mouth disease vaccine is made from attenuated or killed virus. Once injected, the virus will stimulate the host's immune response, providing immunity. In order to make the vaccine, huge amount of FMD virus must be cultured and processed. FMD virus is commonly proliferated by using BHK-21.

However, a study revealed that dramatic changes can take place using suspension cell cultures, which include the phenotypic and genotypic alterations within a certain range of passages. There is also a possibility of degradation of FMD progeny virus when it reaches its high level of passage affecting the effectivity of the vaccine.


Esco VacciXcell solution

VacciXcell Tide Motion Bioreactors are capable of producing BHK-21 cells at high density. Tide motion provides the world's first fully single-use bioprocessing method with closed automated cell harvesting for seed preparation (0.1 Liters packed bed volume) to production (5,000 Liters packed bed volume - bioequivalence of 50,000 Liters in suspension) all in the same 3D tide motion.

Moreover, Tide Motion bioreactors are designed based on the concept of bellow-induced intermittent flow of media and air through porous matrices (BioNOC II) where cells reside. With the use of Tide Motion principle, the gentle vertical oscillation of culture medium and air provides cells an environment that has low shear stress to avoid cell damage or cell death. BHK-21 cell cultures require high aeration and nutrition levels to reproduce and perform effectively. This efficient nutrient and oxygen transfer is what allows the tide motion system to produce high-density cell yield.



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About Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and mouth disease is a contagious viral disease caused by apthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. This is a common disease found in agricultural animals like cloven-hoofed animals (e.g., cattle, goat, pigs, and sheep). The affected animals suffer from fever, painful sores and blisters on the feet and mouth, thus, causes high mortality in young animals.

About Tide Motion Bioreactors

Tide Motion pertains to the gentle oscillation of culture medium into and out of the matrix vessel that intermittently exposes the cells to aeration and nutrition. The upward oscillation exposes the cells to nutrition, while the downward oscillation exposes the cells to aeration. At the same time, this process washes away products and wastes. This oscillation produces no air bubbles and low shear stress. View a range of products at

About Esco VacciXcell

Esco VacciXcell is the bioprocessing division of Esco Group of Companies that specializes in the marketing and manufacturing of bioprocessing equipment for cell culture.

Esco VacciXcell provides turnkey manufacturing solutions using its proprietary Tide Motion™ Technology to help developing nations to be self-sufficient in the manufacturing, storing, distribution, and administration of vaccines and other biologics, thus providing a complete solution from Discovery to Delivery. For more information on VacciXcell, please visit



  1. Amadori M., Volpe G.,Defilippi P., & Berneri C., (1997) Phenotypic features of BHK-21 cells used for production of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine. p65-73. DOI:10.1006/biol.1996.0061
  2. APHIS Veterinary Services. (March, 2007) Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine. Last accessed August 22, 2018 from