Long-term expression of the therapeutic gene is guaranteed due to the ability of these viral vectors to integrate into the genome of host cells. Integrative viral vectors are beneficial when used as vehicles for gene therapy
Lentivirus are viruses of the Retroviridae family that help scientists to :
Lentiviral vectors are enveloped particles of 80-100 nm that are usually used for functional genomics, ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy, and biological research. They are suitable for many applications due to their ability to successfully target cells and integrate into the host genome.
Characterized by their replication incompetency, cell tropism (determined by capsid serotype), and low immunogenicity, AAVs are non-pathogenic human parvoviruses that are of great interest to gene therapy.
Adeno-associated virus is one of the smallest encapsulated viruses discovered with a diameter of roughly 22 nm.
The advantage of using AAV as a viral vector is promising due to its ability to infect both dividing and quiescent cells and its genetic material to be delivered into a wide range of cell types. Its long-term expression in nondividing cells is favorable for use in gene therapy
Cancer gene therapy commonly use retroviral vectors since its pathological genes are removed and large-scale manufacturing for clinical use is possible.
All protein-coding sequences in the RT vector are replaced with a therapeutic gene of interest but still carry out essential sequences. This means that they are replication deficient and that viral proteins needed for infection are produced by the packing cell line.